作者Laura Bush是美国第43任总统George Walker Bush的第一夫人。
接下来作者列举了Yellowstone等国家公园在保护野生动物方面所起的作用，进一步引出为保护海洋生命所做的类似努力，即建立Marine National Monument。并具体介绍了目前已成立的四个Marine National Monument。
本文出题点和之前考试没有很大差别，既有各种evidence，例如personal anecdote, statistics, example等。也有reasoning，例如analogy，concession, contrast。此外，emotional appeal和word choice方面也有很多值得分析。
Over the last few centuries, human activities have affected the ecosystem and global climate unprecedentedly. While majority environmentalists and government leaders feel satisfied when they have established numerous national parks, Laura Bush claims that protecting the ocean, which represents large proportion of the earth, is equally significant. Throughout the article, the author incorporates evidence, analogy and emotional appeal to craft a plausible argument that will arouse attention from her target audience, including marine biologists and conservationists.
To evoke concern over the current situation, the author employs abundant evidence, which also serves to provide some background information for those who know little about the issue. By offering statistics, she exposes the severity of overharvesting problem: “insome parts of the oceans today up to 90% of large fish are gone from natural ecosystems.” The number is shocking, even for people who are aware of the phenomenon, as it means human beings have exerted great damages on the ocean system. Not only does the author reference data, she also reminisces her own experience. To further highlight the urgency of preserving marine life, she relates to adverse effects of trash and pollution on Midway island, where “debris killing birds that could not distinguish between plastic refuse and squid.” The consequence, including “permanently losing vital marine resources”, is certainly not what people expect. It is by envisioning the disastrous result that the author successfully proves to environmentalists and general public that if they do not take immediate action, the destruction could get even worse.
Apart from enumerating evidence, the author also utilizes analogy so that the readers could see “a blueprint for protecting our oceans.” Before introducing the government effort in saving the marine life, the author first recounts the history of Yellowstone National Park and the advantages of such endeavor: “our national parks play an outsized role in maintaining healthy and diverse wildlife populations far beyond their boundaries.” Since most readers know Yellowstone and acknowledge its contribution in protecting wildlife, the author could easily gain consensus among them over its significance. Then she turns to “four marine national monuments in the Pacific Ocean”, what President Bush has designated, and introduces them separately, insinuating that these monuments could also do much to preserving the sea, much as the national parks have done. The future impact of Bush’s effort is unknown, but the author has reassured the audience that the influence must be positive. While some of them may worry about the effect before reading this passage, this analogy convinces them that only by devoting to establishing these marine national monuments could human beings be able to stop the marine life from extinction.
Additionally,the author also uses emotional appeal to gain more support from her audience. When she underscores the necessity of the preservation, she creates a dichotomy between the increasing population living near the ocean, “nearly half of the world's population”, and the decreasing waters, “our wild ocean frontiers are disappearing,” reminding the readers that conserving the ocean is also saving our own dwelling place. Moreover, by referring to the sea as something “too easy to destroy but impossible to replace” and “incubators of life”, the author further emphasizes the vulnerable side of this area and its irreplaceable value. At this point, the meaning of people’s action has expanded, as they are not just preventing the turtles and fishes from disappearing, saving habitat for human beings, but also preserving the incubator, or the origin, of all the living beings. Settling in a coastal community has always been the dream or preference of most civilians. Therefore, the author’s calling could effectively arouse emotional response among readers.
Overall, with the utilization of statistics, example, analogy and emotional appeal, the author is able to convince most readers of the significance to conserve the marine system. When the Bush Administration carries out further policies, they are more likely to advocate, rather than resisting such conservation programs.
A New Wave of National Parks
Our ocean frontiers are disappearing,and it is up to us to conserve the most important wild areas that remain.
Our first national park was named not after a mountain or forest but for a mighty river: Yellowstone. For centuries the world's waters have connected us. Explorers, traders, scientists and fishermen have traveled our oceans and rivers in search of new resources and agreater understanding of the world. This Wednesday, as we mark World OceansDay, we must intensify our efforts to better understand, manage and conserveour waters and marine habitats if they are to remain a vibrant source of life for future generations. Great progress has been made in protecting our environment over the past several decades, but too little of that progress addresses 70% of the world's surface—our oceans. Less than one-half of 1% of the world's oceans are protected in ways that will ensure they stay wild. Toooften overharvesting depletes what should be a lasting bounty of fish. In some parts of the oceans today up to 90% of large fish are gone from natural ecosystems. Our oceans are also where much of our trash and pollution end up.Plastics and other pollutants difficult to break down are killing fish, turtles and birds. Currents in the Pacific have created aplastic garbage dump twice the size of Texas. A few years ago, I visited Midway Island in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and was shocked to find debris killing birds that could not distinguish between plastic refuse and squid. We are at risk of permanently losing vital marine resources and harming our quality of life.
Overfishing and degrading our oceanwaters damages the habitats needed to sustain diverse marine populations.Perhaps the most vital function our oceans serve is that of climate regulator—they produce oxygen, reduce pollution, and remove carbon dioxide. If we don't protect our oceans, we could witness the destruction of some of the world's most beautiful and important natural resources. Fortunately,Yellowstone offers a blueprint for protecting our oceans. President Ulysses S.Grant created Yellowstone National Park in 1872 at a time when large wild areason the frontier were at risk. The founding of Yellowstone sparked a 50-year period during which many of the national parks we enjoy today were created. Our country began to see the value of setting aside large territories that would remain wild forever. Our national parks play an outsized role in maintaining healthy and diverse wildlife populations far beyond their boundaries. Many of the elk, deer and wolves seen throughout Western states trace their lineage to populations in Yellow stone. In the early 1970s, the U.S. established a modest program to conserve some of its most important marine areas, called the National Marine Sanctuary System. In June 2006 and again in January 2009, theU.S. expanded the concept of parkland and wilderness preserves in the sea when President Bush designated four marine national monuments in the Pacific Ocean.
The first of these, the Papah ānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, encompasses a 100-mile wide area of nearly pristine habitat northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, and was named a Unesco World Heritagesite in 2010. A second area, the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument,includes the world's deepest canyon and is home to some of the oldest and mostresilient forms of life on the planet. The other two monuments are the Pacific Remote Islands dispersed throughout the Pacific Ocean and the Rose Atoll in American Samoa. These four monuments cover more than 330,000 square miles and add up to the largest fully protected marine area in the world, larger than allof our national parks and wildlife refuges combined. They support vast numbers of fish, breathtakingly beautiful coral habitat, and are markable abundance of sharks—often seen as markers of an ecosystem's health. These monuments will remain open to shipping and other uses that will allow the economies and cultures of nearby American territories to prosper. But they will also remain a wild resource, a place where scientists can make new discoveries and where a variety of species can thrive.
In the coming years, protecting our oceans will be even more important. Nearly half of the world's population lives within 60 miles of an ocean, and that percentage will rise as more people settle in coastal communities. Today there are few waters outside the reach of human exploitation. Our wild ocean frontiers are disappearing and, like we did with Yellowstone, it is up to us to conserve the most important wild areas that remain. Doing so will preserve something that is all too easy to destroy but impossible to replace: natural, undisturbed incubators of life.